Erzurum is the largest province in Eastern Anatolia and is located on a high plateau (1950 m). The province has always been a transportation junction and is now the transfer point for air, rail or bus connections for travellers coming to eastern Turkey.
The history of the city extends back to 4000 BC and it has seen many civilizations. One of the important remains from this periods is the well preserved Byzantine city walls. Most of the historical finds are kept in the collections of the Archaeological Museum, which is a part of the Erzurum Museum.
The modern city, with wide tree lined boulevards and university buildings, is intertwined with the historical district. The Seljuk buildings in the town are remarkable. The Ulu Mosque built in 1179 is interesting, with its many columns and seven wide naves. Next door to Ulu Mosque is the Cifte Minareli Medresse, which is the most famous feature of the city. It is a perfect example of Seljuk architecture, the carved portal being particularly fine. Walking south you will see the Three Tombs (Uc Kumbetler). Another interesting tomb is the elegant 13th century Hatuniye Tomb. The Yakutiye Medresse of the 13th century is one of the most important historical monuments of Erzurum with its beautiful portal and richly tiled minaret. Here is an elaborate mosque built by the great architect Mimar Sinan in the 16th century, the Lala Mustafa Pasa Mosque. The Aziziye monument commemorating the Turkish - Russian War, the citadel and Bell Tower, the Rustem Pasa Caravanserai and the Bedesten are other historical places of interest.
Erzurum has a specific local black stone which is used for jewelry or, the like which you may see while wandering around, especially in Tashan.
For nature lovers Lake Tortum, 120 kms from Erzurum, and Mount Palandoken provide perfect opportunities. Palandoken winter sports resort which is reached by mountain roads of scenic beauty. Only 6 kms from Erzurum, this winter sports spot is competitive with those of Europe. By Lake Tortum you will encounter a rarely found beauty of a peaceful lake. The waterfalls at the northern end of the lake are worth seeing as they plunge from a height of 47 m. Erzurum is a very province suitable for mountaineering with peaks of 3000 m, and also has many hot springs and meadows.