Anatolian Civilizations

Early Anatolia (6000–500 B.C.)

The first lectures deal with the earliest civilizations of Anatolia, emerging at the dawn of agriculture in Neolithic villages on the Konya plain (in central Turkey); through the Hittite Empire, the apex of civilization in the late Bronze Age (1400–1180 B.C.); to the emergence of Phrygia, Lydia, and Persia, heirs to the Hittite traditions in the early Iron Age (1100–500 B.C.).

The Hellenization of Anatolia (750–31 B.C.)

The shores of Western Anatolia came under the influence of the earliest Greeks, the Achaeans or Mycenaeans, during the late Bronze Age (1400–1200 B.C.). Although this contact inspired the epic poems of Homer, it was only from 750 B.C. that Hellenic influence spread into the peninsula. Alexander the Great (336–323 B.C.) conquered Anatolia, and his successors transformed the region into a center of Greek cities that played a major role in the civilization of the Hellenistic Age (323–31 B.C.).

Roman Asia Minor (200 B.C.–A.D. 395)

The Romans built on the Hellenistic cities and institutions, and Anatolia was transformed into one of the most prosperous regions of the Roman world and homeland of the future Byzantine Empire. The Hellenic cities of Anatolia not only adapted Roman institutions and culture but even influenced the Roman monarchy, known as the Principate.

Byzantine Civilization (395–1453)

Imperial crisis in 235–305, and Christianization after 324, produced a new Byzantine civilization on Anatolian soil by 600, the basis of Orthodox Eastern Europe today. The Byzantine Empire, reduced to its Anatolian core, weathered two and one-half centuries of invasions and emerged as the leading civilization of medieval Christendom in the tenth and eleventh centuries.

Islamic Turkey (since 1071)

The Anatolian peninsula was transformed from a Christian to a Muslim land in the wake of Byzantine decline and the arrival of crusaders from Western Europe. Ottoman sultans then built the last great Muslim empire in the Middle East and Mediterranean world, an empire that fragmented in the twentieth century into a series of nation-states. In 1922–1939, Anatolia became the core of the Turkish Republic, a Muslim society that has successfully met the challenges of modernization.



Bronze Age

  • Hattians ca. 2500-ca. 2000 BC
  • Akkadian Empire ca. 2400-ca. 2150 BC
  • Assyrian trading colonies ca. 1950-1750 BC
  • Kingdom of Kizzuwatna ca. 1650 BC-1450 BC
  • Hittites ca. 1680 BC-1220 BC
  • Old Kingdom
  • Middle Kingdom
  • New Kingdom
  • Ionian Collusion ca. 1300 BC-700 BC
  • Neo-Hittite Kingdoms ca. 1200-800 BC
  • Phrygian Kingdom ca. 1200 BC-700 BC
  • Troy I-VIII ca. 3000 BC-700 BC

Iron Age to Classical Antiquity

  • Lydian Kingdom ca. 685-547 BC
  • Achaemenid Empire of Persia ca. 559-331 BC
  • Kingdom of Alexander the Great 334-ca. 301 BC
  • Seleucid Empire ca. 305-64 BC
  • Kingdom of Pontus ca. 302-64 BC
  • Attalids of Pergamon 282-129 BCE
  • Kingdom of Armenia 190 BC-428
  • The Roman Republic 133-27 BC
  • The Roman Empire 27 BC-330 AD

Middle Ages

  • The Byzantine Empire 330-1453
  • Byzantium under the Heraclians 610-711
  • Isaurian dynasty and Iconoclasm 730-787 and 814-842
  • Byzantium under the Macedonians 867-1056
  • Danishmends 1071-1178
  • The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm 1077-1307
  • Byzantium under the Komnenoi 1081-1185
  • Byzantium under the Angeloi 1185-1204
  • Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia 1078-1375
  • Artuqid dynasty 1101-1409
  • The Empire of Trebizond 1204-1461
  • The Empire of Nicaea 1204-1261
  • Beylik of Karaman 1270-1487
  • Byzantium under the Palaiologoi 1260-1453
  • The Ilkhanid Dynasty ca. 1256-1355
  • The Rise of the Ottoman Empire 1299-1453

Modern period

  • The Growth of the Ottoman Empire 1453-1606
  • The Stagnation of the Ottoman Empire 1606-1699
  • The Decline of the Ottoman Empire 1699-1839
  • The Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire 1792-1922
  • The Republic of Turkey 1923-present